The idea of the Übermensch is central to Nietzsche's philosophy and is closely tied to his rejection of traditional moral values. In his view, traditional morality is based on the belief that there is a universal set of moral principles that apply to all people at all times. These moral principles are often seen as being imposed on individuals by external forces, such as religious authorities or social norms.
Nietzsche, however, argued that this view of morality is misguided and that it fails to take into account the inherent subjectivity of human experience. He believed that each individual is unique and has their own unique set of values and meanings that they create for themselves. As a result, he argued that traditional moral principles are too restrictive and do not allow individuals to fully express themselves or to achieve their full potential.
In contrast to traditional morality, Nietzsche proposed the concept of the Übermensch as a model of human excellence and achievement. According to Nietzsche, the Übermensch is an individual who has overcome the constraints of traditional morality and has achieved a higher level of self-awareness and self-mastery. This individual is driven by a will to power and a desire to create their own values and meaning in life, rather than being bound by the norms and values of society.
The Übermensch is also often associated with Nietzsche's philosophy of individualism and self-overcoming. In this view, the Übermensch is an individual who is able to overcome their own limitations and to rise above the constraints of conventional society. This individual is able to create their own values and meaning in life, and to live according to these values.
While the concept of the Übermensch has been interpreted and reinterpreted in many different ways, it has also been criticised by some as being elitist and dangerous. Some argue that the idea of the Übermensch implies that only a select few individuals are capable of achieving this level of self-awareness and self-mastery, and that the rest of society should be subservient to these individuals. Others have argued that the idea of the Übermensch can be used to justify unethical or immoral behaviour, as individuals who see themselves as Übermenschen may feel that they are above the constraints of traditional morality.
Despite these criticisms, the concept of the Übermensch remains an important part of Nietzsche's philosophy and continues to be a source of debate and discussion among philosophers and cultural critics. While some may view the Übermensch as a model of human excellence and achievement, others may see it as elitist and dangerous. Ultimately, the meaning and significance of the Übermensch will continue to be interpreted and reinterpreted in a variety of different ways.