Jean-Paul Sartre was a French philosopher, writer, and political activist who played a significant role in the intellectual life of the 20th century. Born in Paris in 1905, Sartre was a central figure in the philosophical movement of existentialism, which emphasises the individual's subjective experience and rejection of traditional moral and religious values.
Sartre's philosophical works are known for their focus on human freedom and responsibility. He believed that individuals have complete freedom to make their own choices, and that these choices determine the meaning and value of their lives. Sartre's concept of "bad faith" refers to the ways in which individuals avoid taking responsibility for their actions and choices, often by denying their own freedom and agency.
Sartre was also a successful writer, and is best known for his novels "Nausea" and "Being and Nothingness." In 1964, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, but he declined the award, stating that he did not want to be considered part of the literary establishment.
Sartre was an active political activist throughout his life, and was involved in the French resistance movement during World War II. He was a vocal critic of capitalist and communist ideologies, and believed that true freedom could only be achieved through individual responsibility and action.
Sartre died in 1980, leaving behind a rich body of philosophical and literary work that continues to be studied and debated by scholars and students today. Despite his rejection of traditional moral and religious values, Sartre's philosophy remains a powerful and influential force in contemporary thought.